Last modified on Mon 11 Mar 2024

The motivation behind using Docker is to have a reproducible environment for application development and deployment.

Instead of setting up application dependencies in each environment (tools, libraries, configuration), we can use a docker image that contains all those dependencies. This image is then consistent between the development machine, cloud host, and Virtual Private Servers. A Docker container is self-contained and isolated which means other applications or different versions of some tool running on the host won't affect container execution. Once something is added to an image it's kept in the image file as a copy. If the remote source is gone or updated the image always contains the files it was built with.

All cloud providers support running docker images which simplifies the development/deployment/testing cycle (fewer "Works on my machine !" scenarios).

Docker images do add some overhead :

Without going into too many details (see the official documentation for more information), here's a basic overview of the important concepts behind Docker useful for a .NET developer.

Docker image

Image is a self-contained application environment. A good analogy for an image would be a virtual machine snapshot - image build copies all files needed to run the application to a virtual machine and then creates a snapshot.

You can then use the image ("VM snapshot") as a template to start one (or more) docker containers. You can also upload the image to a registry to run containers on different hosts.

Instead of manually copying things into a VM, docker images are built from a script called Dockerfile. To build an image from a Dockerfile :

> docker build -t <image-name> .


A script that specifies how a docker image will be built (eg. copy source files from the project folder, run dotnet build inside of Docker image).

An important feature of dockerfile is that it can reference existing docker images, eg. :


This means that the docker image will have all the stuff from the referenced image preinstalled (in this case a Linux machine with a .NET 8.0 SDK installed).

Microsoft has been producing chiseled container images since .NET 6. Chiseled containers are stripped down versions of Linux containing only essential packages for running applications. Microsoft is publiching these images to the main .NET Docker repositories.

Note that chiseled containers include only runtime repositories like dotnet/runtime image, not dotnet/sdk image because benefits of chiseled containers do not apply to the SDK images. Also, keep in mind that you cannot use tools like apt, curl and bash in chiseled containers.

Example of commands you can do in Dockerfile :

# We need dotnet SDK so we reference a dotnet/sdk:8.0

# changes the working directory inside of docker image to `/app`.

# copies everything from current directory to docker image `WORKDIR` (ie. `/app/`).
COPY . .

# command calls `dotnet publish -c Release -o out` inside of docker image working directory (builds the app).
RUN dotnet publish -c Release -o out

Docker container

A container is an instance of a docker image, it can be running or stopped.

To start a new container from an image :

> docker run -d --name <container-name> -p 8000:8080 -p 8001:443 <image-name>

This will run start a new docker container <container-name> and expose ports 8080 and 433 from the container to ports 8000 and 8001 on the host. You can then open localhost:8000 on the host to access the application running inside the container.

From .NET 8 there is a change in default port from 80 to 8080, but if you still want to use the port 80 you need to use the root user:

> docker run -d --name <container-name> -p 8000:80 -u root -e ASPNETCORE_HTTP_PORTS=80 -p 8001:443 <image-name>

The -d switch means that the docker container should run in the background and not capture your current terminal.

To get a list of all containers on the machine :

> docker ps -a

CONTAINER ID   IMAGE          COMMAND                  CREATED        STATUS        PORTS              NAMES
a56253f77395   random-api    "dotnet Random.API..."    30 hours ago   Up 30 hours   :::8000->80/tcp    random-api
0cb476024407   mariadb       "docker-entrypoint.s…"   10 days ago    Up 2 days     :::3306->3306/tcp  random-db

-a switch tells it to show stopped containers as well, by default it will only print the running ones.

Stop a container :

> docker stop <container-name|container-id>

Removing a docker container :

> docker rm <container-name>

Removing a container also deletes the data inside of it. If you had a database running in this container all the data would be lost.

To persist the data and share it between different containers (eg. update the database image to a new version will require starting a new container from the updated image), you need to use volumes.

To share files between the host and docker image (eg. when developing, files that change often don't want to rebuild the image and start a new container on each change) you can use binding mounts to expose your host paths to the docker image.

Example Dockerfile for a .NET project

# syntax=docker/dockerfile:1
# First we create a "build" image
FROM AS build-env
# We will be working inside of the /app folder in docker image

# The general idea behind this step is that you first copy `.csproj` and `.sln` files because they rarely change.
# Then you run `dotnet restore` which will pull nuget packages.
# Docker will then understand that if no files changed before `RUN dotnet restore`
# it can keep using a cached version of the image
# so you only need to run restore when `.csproj` or `.sln` changes.
COPY *.sln .
COPY **/*.csproj ./
# This is a bash script that will for each `.csproj` create folders named like the project and move
# the `.csproj` inside of it - it seems strange but the line above this one `COPY **/*.csproj` does not
# work the way you expect it to - instead of copying the entire folder structure with `.csproj` files
# it will put all *.csproj files in to the target folder root
# This is a hacky workaround around an issue in docker, if your project files use nested hierarchy
# this will not work and you will need to do some other workaround.
# See this issue for more info :
RUN for file in $(ls *.csproj); do mkdir -p ./${file%.csproj}/ && mv $file ./${file%.csproj}/; done
RUN dotnet restore

# Now you copy all source files and call build
COPY . ./
RUN dotnet publish -c Release -o out

# Now create a runtime image and copy all the build artifacts from build image
COPY --from=build-env /app/out ./

# Our runtime image will call dotnet Project.Name.API.dll on startup
ENTRYPOINT ["dotnet", "Project.Name.API.dll"]

This docker file will do a 2 stage image build. First, it will create a temporary image with .NET SDK called build-env, it will copy the source inside of that image and build it.

The second stage will build the runtime image, this image will only contain the .NET runtime and the built project files.

To create a docker image in your project, add a Dockerfile to the root of your solution, create a .dockerignore file, then build and run the image :

> docker build -t <image-name>
> docker run --rm -d --name <container-name> <image-name> \
    -p 8000:80 \

You can add additional environment variables for the docker container with more -e switches.


COPY . ./ command from the example docker script above will copy everything from the source folder, including things we don't want like downloaded packages, build artifacts, etc.

To prevent copying unwanted files to the Docker image, we need to list them inside the .dockerignore file in the projects root directory.

Running ASP.NET core with HTTPS inside of docker

More information on this can be found here, but here is a quick overview

Create a dev certificate for localhost

On Windows :

dotnet dev-certs https -ep $env:USERPROFILE/.aspnet/https/<certificate-name>.pfx -p crypticpassword
dotnet dev-certs https --trust

On MacOS/Linux :

> dotnet dev-certs https -ep ${HOME}/.aspnet/https/<certificate-name>.pfx -p crypticpassword
> dotnet dev-certs https --trust

Pass HTTPS configuration to a docker image

On Windows :

> docker run --rm -d --name <container-name> -p 8000:80 -p 8001:443 \
        -e ASPNETCORE_ENVIRONMENT=Development \
        -e ASPNETCORE_URLS="https://+;http://+" \
        -e ASPNETCORE_HTTPS_PORT=8001 \
        -e ASPNETCORE_Kestrel__Certificates__Default__Password="crypticpassword" \
        -e ASPNETCORE_Kestrel__Certificates__Default__Path=/https/<certificate-name>.pfx \
        -v ${HOME}/.aspnet/https:/https/ \

On MacOs/Linux

> docker run --rm -d --name <container-name> -p 8000:80 -p 8001:443 \
        -e ASPNETCORE_ENVIRONMENT=Development \
        -e ASPNETCORE_URLS="https://+;http://+" \
        -e ASPNETCORE_HTTPS_PORT=8001 \
        -e ASPNETCORE_Kestrel__Certificates__Default__Password="<crypticpassword>" \
        -e ASPNETCORE_Kestrel__Certificates__Default__Path=/https/<certificate-name>.pfx \
        -v ${HOME}/.aspnet/https:/https/ \

You should now be able to access the HTTPS version of your site at https://localhost:8001.

Publishing docker images

Docker images can be published to a registry. To deploy an image publish it to a registry and then reference the registry image on the host which will run the image.

Docker Hub is the default registry you are pulling public images from by default.

To publish an image you need to tag it as an image on a remote registry and then push the tag :

> docker image tag <image-name> <registry-host>/<image-name>
> docker image push <registry-host>/<image-name>

Useful tips when working with docker

Rebuilding images and updating containers

docker build builds a new image with the latest changes but it does not restart/update currently running containers.

Stop the existing docker image, remove it and then start it again from the latest version.

If you're doing this often enough in your workflow consider using docker-compose which can automate these steps and more.

Container shell access

During development it can be useful to run shell commands inside of the docker image :

> docker exec -it <image-name> bash

Creating an image from a running container (manual image patching)

Create a container, do some modifications (eg. via shell access), and create a new image :

> docker commit <image-name>

This image can then be pushed, started, etc.

Avoid using this regularly (images should build correctly from a Dockerfile), but in emergency situations or during development it's a tool to be aware of.

Image tags

In all the places <image-name> is used in the instructions above image-tag can be added to uniquely represent an image version.

Eg. working on multiple branches, for each branch :

> docker build -t <image-name>:<feature-name>
> docker run --name <container-name-with-feature> <image-name>:<feature-name>

This will build a tagged version of the image and start a container from that version.